The apprentice’s advancement requires a careful study of figure structure, as elucidated by Richer, Bridgman, and Hale, familiarizing themselves with the bony structure of the skeleton, and the location, origin, insertion, and function of the muscles.

Architectonic Disengno
The Architectural Design and Structure of the Human Form

The skeletal system is compliant with the laws of architecture, it is made up of; domes, arches, keystones, pillars, etc.

Figure Structure involves the laws of mechanics such as hinges, levers, and the principles of motion demonstrated by Newton’s Cradle. The bones, ligaments, and muscles act together to provide MOTION.

Ligaments are the cableor TENSION system and express still other laws of mechanics.

Muscles make up the POWER system and produce action by flexing. By flexing they shorten and become bulkier when relaxed they lack bulk and are smoothed out.

Muscles express the laws of LEVERAGE: they are large in proportion to the length of the lever they move. The upper arm is longer and larger than the forearm, the forearm longer and larger than the palm the palm larger than the fingers.

The mechanics of these systems working together has its own set of laws, i.e., for every muscle pulling in one direction, there must be a corresponding muscle pulling in the opposite direction. Every muscle on the right side must be paired with one on the left: for every FLEXOR on the front, there must be an EXTENSOR on the back.

These mechanical systems are logical and demonstratable and when comprehended bring greater clarity and understanding of what the model is doing. And expressing what the model is doing is the necessary ingredient in successful life drawing.

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